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Early Earth's mild climate may signal life on other planets | Earth.com
Wednesday, April 4, 2018
Early Earth has always had a volatile reputation. Previous studies have estimated various scenarios ranging from an ice-covered, snowball Earth to a sweltering environment complete with acidic oceans. David Catling, a UW professor of Earth and space sciences, and Joshua Krissansen-Totton, a UW doctoral student in Earth and space sciences, are quoted. Read More
Four UW students honored by Goldwater Foundation
Tuesday, April 3, 2018
Three University of Washington undergraduates are among 211 students nationwide named as 2018 Goldwater Scholars. One UW student received honorable mention.
The Barry Goldwater Scholarships are awarded to students who have "outstanding potential" and plan to pursue research careers in mathematics, natural sciences or engineering. The awards cover tuition, room and board, fees and books up to $7,500 annually for one or two years.
The 2018 Goldwater Scholars from the UW are Nelson Liu, Kimberly Ruth and Tyler Valentine. Andrew Luo earned an honorable mention.
- Liu, who is from California, is a computer science, statistics and linguistics major who hopes to teach at the university level and conduct research on natural language processing and machine learning.
- Ruth, whose home state is Washington, is pursuing a double major in computer engineering and mathematics. She plans to pursue a doctorate in computer science on her way to a research career in computer science and privacy.
- Valentine, who is from Washington, is majoring in Earth and space sciences. He plans to pursue a doctorate in space science and engineering focused on using the resources of near-Earth space.
- Luo, who is from Washington, is a double major in computer science and bioengineering.
The Goldwater Foundation fielded a total of 1,280 nominations from colleges and universities throughout the United States in 10 fields.
This year's scholars were chosen from among 1,280 students nominated by faculty members at colleges and universities around the country, and include 110 men and 99 women. The majority -- 142 -- are majoring in natural sciences-related fields; 29 are math and computer science majors, and 40 are engineering majors. Many are pursuing dual majors and almost all hope to obtain a doctorate.
The Barry Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence in Education Program was established by Congress in 1986 to honor Goldwater, a five-term senator from Arizona and Air Force Reserve major general. Since 1989, the program has provided more than 8,100 scholarships totaling $65 million dollars.
Early Earth's climate was more tame than previously thought, suggesting other planets may be suitable for life | Tech Times
Tuesday, April 3, 2018
There has yet to be consensus on the climate of early Earth. Different studies have described the planet as an extremely cold snowball, while others have said that it had unimaginable heat on the surface as it was cooling. A new UW study suggests that the climate of Earth was similar to its current climate. Read More
Moderate conditions on the early Earth raise the prospects of life elsewhere | IFLScience
Tuesday, April 3, 2018
Geologists have spent decades debating the temperatures during the first few hundred million years of Earth's history, as well as the early ocean's chemistry. A new paper provides evidence for relative moderation, similar to the world today. Joshua Krissansen-Totton, a UW doctoral student in Earth and space sciences, is quoted. Read More
Life on alien planets? Earth's mild climate history hints at possibility | International Business Times
Tuesday, April 3, 2018
A new study presented by a group of researchers at University of Washington hints at a more moderate climatic history for our planet. David Catling, a UW professor of Earth and space sciences, and Joshua Krissansen-Totton, a UW doctoral student in Earth and space sciences, are quoted. Read More
Earth's stable temperature past suggests other planets could also sustain life
Monday, April 2, 2018
Theories about the early days of our planet’s history vary wildly. Some studies have painted the picture of a snowball Earth, when much of its surface was frozen. Other theories have included periods that would be inhospitably hot for most current lifeforms to survive.
New research from the University of Washington suggests a milder youth for our planet. An analysis of temperature through early Earth’s history, published the week of April 2 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, supports more moderate average temperatures throughout the billions of years when life slowly emerged on Earth.
“Ideas about the early Earth’s environment are all over the place, from a very hot world, to one locked in a permanent ice age, from a world with acidic oceans to one with seawater so alkaline it would sting your eyes,” said David Catling, a UW professor of Earth and space sciences. “These simulations show that our early world had about the same average temperature as today, and a seawater pH within roughly one unit of neutral.”
Previous research studies have put average temperatures during the Archean era, 4 to 2.5 billion years ago, as low as minus 25 degrees Celsius. Other estimates, based on different interpretations of the evidence, have placed average temperatures as high as 85 degrees Celsius, under which only heat-loving microbes that now exist in hot springs could survive.
The new results put the outer range of possible temperatures at 0 to 50 C (32 to 122 F).
“Our results show that Earth has had a moderate temperature through virtually all of its history, and that is attributable to weathering feedbacks -- they do a good job at maintaining a habitable climate,” said first author Joshua Krissansen-Totton, a UW doctoral student in Earth and space sciences.
To create their estimate, the researchers took the most recent understanding for how rocks, oceans and air temperature interact, and put that into a computer simulation of Earth’s temperature over the past 4 billion years. Their calculations included the most recent information for how seafloor weathering occurs on geologic timescales, and under different conditions.
Though we don’t think of wind and rain wearing away at the seafloor, the seabed is eroded as seawater percolates through rock on the ocean’s floor. Carbon-containing molecules settle out from the water, a process related to the temperature and acidity of the seawater, while other chemicals are dissolved from the rock.
“Seafloor weathering was more important for regulating temperature of the early Earth because there was less continental landmass at that time, the Earth’s interior was even hotter, and the seafloor crust was spreading faster, so that was providing more crust to be weathered,” Krissansen-Totton said.
The authors ran simulations for many possible scenarios for the size of the continents, the temperature sensitivity of chemical weathering and other factors to get the full range of possible scenarios for average air temperature and ocean pH through history.
“We got this initial answer that early Earth had moderate temperatures and slightly acidic ocean pH,” Krissansen-Totton said. “I tried really hard to break that, looking for assumptions that could possibly change that answer. But I found that this is a really robust result. It’s hard to imagine a realistic scenario where temperatures or pH were more extreme.”
That is good news for the search for life on other planets. If Earth’s temperature was moderate throughout its history, other planets located in the habitable zone must also retain a fairly stable climate long enough for other lifeforms to evolve.
“There’s nothing particularly remarkable about these processes,” Krissansen-Totton said. “They can occur on any rocky planet with oceans. So other planets that are in the habitable zone are likely to have their climates stabilized to moderate values by these weathering feedbacks. And that’s a good thing for the search for life, because you need moderate temperatures for billions of years to have a stable environment for life to evolve.”
The results may also help shed light on what conditions were like during the early evolution of life on Earth.
“The results help us understand how natural processes kept Earth’s environment suitable for life to carry on for billions of years, from its humblest beginnings to the wonderful forms now around us,” Catling said.
The paper’s other co-author is Giada Arney, a research scientist at NASA who contributed as part of her UW doctorate. The research was funded by NASA and the Simons Foundation.
Grants: NASA: NNX15AR63H, NNA13AA93A, NNX15AL23G, Simons Foundation: 511570Read More
2018 ESS Awards and Scholarships Applications are OPEN
Sunday, April 1, 2018
The awards application for ALL ESS students (MESSAGe grads, research grads, and undergrads) is now available! As you know, every year the ESS Department and our donors provide a number of funding opportunities for our students. Every ESS student should consider applying to these awards! Applications are due by 11PM on Sunday, April 1. Please also save the date for the ESS Awards Ceremony at 3:30PM on Thurs., May 10 in JHN 102. All applicants are expected to attend the Awards Ceremony. We look forward to receiving your applications! Read More
How would aliens detect life on Earth? | National Geographic
Monday, March 26, 2018
From gases in the atmosphere to satellites in space, Earth is sending plenty of signals that something here is alive. Joshua Krissansen-Totton, a UW doctoral student in Earth and space sciences, is quoted. Read More
Not all icebergs are white: Here's what makes them blue, green or striped | ABC News
Monday, March 26, 2018
Icebergs can be beautiful and majestic -- but have you ever wondered what gives them their color? Steve Warren, professor of Earth and space sciences at the University of Washington, is quoted. Read More
University of Washington graduate and professional disciplines rank highly in US News' Best Graduate School lists
Tuesday, March 20, 2018
Nearly 50 different graduate and professional programs and specialties at the University of Washington are among the top 10 in the nation, according to U.S. News & World Report's 2019 Best Graduate School rankings released March 20.
Several schools and departments placed prominently in the 2019 rankings, including medicine, nursing, social work, computer science and public affairs.
“From health care and human services, to public policy, to computer science and engineering, the University of Washington is home to world-class learning and discovery, and we are honored that the U.S. News rankings reflect the excellence of our students, faculty and research,” said President Ana Mari Cauce.
The UW School of Medicine ranked third in the nation in the primary care medical schools category. Medical student training in family medicine and rural medicine ranked No. 1 last year; those two categories were not re-ranked this year. The UW medical school's graduate program in microbiology tied for second in the nation, and its graduate programs in genetics, genomics and bioinformatics ranked fifth.
At the UW School of Nursing, the Doctor of Nursing Practice degree program ranked third, and master's programs in nursing ranked fifth overall. Its family nurse practitioner program tied for first, its pediatric nurse practitioner program ranked third, and its program for training psychiatric/mental health practitioners ranked fourth.
The UW School of Social Work tied for fifth in the nation.
The UW's computer science program is considered No. 6 in the country, along with specialties artificial intelligence, which ranked fifth, and programming language and systems, which both ranked sixth.
The UW's Evans School of Public Policy and Governance ranked in a three-way tie for sixth place. Its environmental policy training ranked second, non-profit management ranked fourth, public finance and budgeting ranked fifth, and public management and leadership tied for seventh place.
Information about U.S. News & World Report's methodology can be found here.
Below is a roundup of the UW's graduate and professional school and program rankings that were available under embargo to institutions before the full rankings were published. This list will be updated as more complete rankings become available:
College of Arts & Sciences
Chemistry (analytical): 8th
Computer science (overall): Tie for 6th
Artificial intelligence: 5th
Programming language: 6th
Statistics: Three-way tie for 8th
Physics (nuclear): 4th
Earth sciences: Three-way tie for 10th
College of Education (overall): 9th
Education (administration/supervision): 10th
Education (curriculum/instruction): 10th
Education (elementary education): 5th
Education (secondary education): 9th
Education (special education): 8th
College of Engineering
Engineering (biomedical/bioengineering): Three-way tie for 9th
Engineering (computer): Three-way tie for 9th
School of Public Health: 6th (ranked in 2015)
Biostatistics: Three-way tie for 3rd (ranked in 2015)
Health care management: Five-way tie for 10th (ranked in 2015)
Library and Information studies: 2nd (ranked in 2017)
Digital librarianship: 3rd (ranked in 2017)
Law librarianship: 1st (ranked in 2017)
Services for children and youth: 2nd (ranked in 2017)
Information systems: 3rd (ranked in 2017)
School library media: 7th (ranked in 2017)
School of Medicine
Primary care medical schools: 3rd
Family medicine: 1st (ranked in 2017)
Rural medicine: 1st (ranked in 2017)
Pediatrics: Tie for 7th
Internal medicine: 9th
Geriatrics: 7th (ranked in 2017)
School of Medicine basic science graduate programs
Microbiology: Tie for 2nd
School of Nursing
Doctor of Nursing Practice: 3rd
Nursing master’s (overall): 5th
Nurse practitioner (family): Tie for 1st
Nurse practitioner (adult, primary care): 7th
Nurse practitioner (pediatric, primary care): 3rd
Nurse practitioner (psychiatric/mental health): 4th
Pharmacy: Seven-way tie for 9th (ranked in 2016)
Evans School of Public Policy and Governance
Public affairs (overall): Three-way tie for 6th
Environmental policy: 2nd
Nonprofit management: 4th
Public finance and budgeting: 5th
Public management and leadership: Tie for 7th
School of Social work: Four-way tie for 5th
School of Speech and Hearing Sciences
Speech-language pathology: Tie for 3rd (ranked in 2016)
Audiology: Three-way tie for 4th (ranked in 2016)
Biological sciences: Three-way tie for 23rd
Chemistry: Six-way tie for 24th
Computer science (theory): 11th
Education (psychology): 11th
Education (policy): 12th
Engineering (aerospace/aeronautical/astronautical): Four-way tie for 17th
Engineering (chemical): Tie for 24th
Engineering (civil): Six-way tie for 17th
Engineering (electrical): Four-way tie for 21st
Engineering (environmental/environmental health): Six-way tie for 17th
Engineering (industrial/manufacturing/systems): Three-way tie for 25th
Engineering (materials): Three-way tie for 24th
Fine arts: Seven-way tie for 20th (ranked in 2016)
Fine arts (ceramics): Tie for 12th (ranked in 2016)
Foster School of Business (overall): 22nd
History: Four-way tie for 23rd (ranked in 2017)
Part-time MBA: Tie for 13th
Entrepreneurship: Three-way tie for 19th
Executive MBA: Three-way tie for 23rd
Law (intellectual property law): 18th
Law (clinical training): Four-way tie for 21st
Law (tax law): Tie for 17th
Local government management: Tie for 15th
Public policy analysis: 11th
Social policy: 12th
Urban policy: Three-way tie for 19th
Health (nursing-midwifery): Three-way tie for 12th (ranked in 2016)
Mathematics (applied math): 11th
Mathematics (analysis): 17th
School of Medicine (medical research schools): Three-way tie for 11th
Anesthesiology: Tie for 13th
Obstetrics & gynecology: 15th
Radiology: Tie for 11th
Occupational therapy: Three-way tie for 14th (ranked in 2016)
Physician assistant: Tie for 11th (ranked in 2015)
Psychology: Seven-way tie for 14th (ranked in 2013)
Nurse practitioner (adult, acute care): Tie for 13th
Sociology: Four-way tie for 20th (ranked in 2013)
Economics: Tie for 35th (ranked in 2013)
Engineering (overall): Tie for 26th
Engineering (mechanical): Five-way tie for 30th
English: Seven-way tie for 35th (ranked in 2017)
School of Law: Five-way tie for 32nd
Mathematics: Six-way tie for 26th
Physical therapy: Eight-way tie for 28th (ranked in 2016)
Political science: Four-way tie for 33rd (ranked in 2017)