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New landslide research from UW | KOMO 4
Thursday, December 12, 2019
New research from the UW is tracking the underlying causes to large landslides. Sean LaHusen, a graduate student in Earth and space sciences at the UW, is interviewed. Read More
Barrels of ancient Antarctic air aim to track history of rare gas
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Ancient air samples from one of Antarctica’s snowiest ice core sites may add a new molecule to the record of changes to Earth’s atmosphere over the past century and a half, since the Industrial Revolution began burning fossil fuels on a massive scale.
While carbon dioxide and methane are well known, researchers at the University of Washington and the University of Rochester are part of a team working to trace a much rarer gas, present at less than one in a trillion molecules. Though rare, the atmospheric detergent known as hydroxyl can scrub the atmosphere and determine the fate of more plentiful gases that affect Earth’s climate.
“Antarctic ice mission seeks mystery molecules that scrub sky” Australian Antarctic Division, October 2018
“Unearthing climate clues buried in ice” University of Rochester, February 2019
“The hunt for sky’s ‘detergent’ begins in Antarctica” Scientific American - November 2018
More about the project
An Antarctic fieldcampaign last winter led by the U.S. and Australia has successfully extracted some of the largest samples of air dating from the 1870s until today. These samples are a first step to learning the changes in hydroxyl concentration over the past 150 years. Early results from the fieldwork were shared this week at the American Geophysical Union’s annual fall meeting in San Francisco.
“It’s probably the most extreme atmospheric chemistry you can do from ice core samples, and the logistics were also extreme,” said Peter Neff, a postdoctoral researcher with dual appointments at the UW and at the University of Rochester.
But the months the team spent camped on the ice at the snowy Law Dome site paid off.
“This is, to my knowledge, the largest air sample from the 1870s that anyone’s ever gotten,” Neff said. His 10 weeks camped on the ice included minus-20 degrees Fahrenheit temperatures and several snowstorms, some of which he shared from Antarctica via Twitter.
1000m of ice core drilled across 6 boreholes
>5000kg of ice melted, freeing 550L of trapped air
Samples from 2010 to 1875, ready to tell us about the atmospheric scrubber "OH"
— Peter Neff (@peter_neff) February 5, 2019
Air from deeper ice cores drilled in Antarctica and Greenland has provided a record of carbon dioxide and methane, two greenhouse gases, going back thousands of years. While carbon dioxide has a lifetime of decades to centuries, an even more potent gas, methane, has a lifetime of just nine or 10 years.
Pinpointing the exact lifetime of methane, and how it has changed over the years, depends on the concentration of hydroxyl. That number is important for the global climate models used to study past and future climate.
To trace the history of hydroxyl, a fleeting molecule with a lifetime of less than a millionth of a second, a field campaign in late 2018 and early 2019 drilled ice to study this very reactive gas by examining its slightly more plentiful companion, carbon with 14 neutrons bonded to an oxygen atom, or "carbon-14 monoxide," which is chemically destroyed by hydroxyl and so tracks hydroxyl’s concentrations.
Researchers get the carbon-14 monoxide gas from bubbles in the ice that form when snow is compressed.
“The special thing about glacier ice is that it always has these air bubbles,” Neff said. “Any glacier in the world is going to have that bubbly texture, because it started as a pile of six-fingered snowflakes, and between those fingers is air.”
One or several decades after hitting the ground, bubbles become completely sealed off from their surroundings due to compression under layers of snow. The heavy snow accumulation at Law Dome means plenty of air bubbles per year, and provides a thick enough shield to protect the carbon-14 monoxide from solar radiation.
The international team extracted about two dozen 3-foot-long sections of ice per day, then put the tubes of ice in a snow cave to protect them from cosmic rays that are stronger near the poles. Those rays can zap other molecules and distort the historic record.
“Once the samples are at the surface, they’re hot potatoes,” Neff said.
The day after extracting a core, the team would clean the ice and place it in a device of Neff and his University of Rochester postdoctoral supervisor Vasilii Petrenko's design: a 335-liter vacuum chamber in a warm bath to melt the ice and process the samples at their source, to avoid contamination and collect the biggest air samples.
“A single sample size was about 400 or 500 kilograms of ice, about the same weight as a grand piano, to get enough of that carbon-14 monoxide molecule,” Neff said. “At the field camp we turned 500 kilos of ice into one 50-liter canister of air.”
How we'll sample the ice drilled at Law Dome: the "hot tub time machine," if you will. A 300L vacuum chamber in a 50C hot water bath will travel with us, so we can cleanly extract ancient air that was once the space between fingers of snowflakes.
— Peter Neff (@peter_neff) October 23, 2018
The team retrieved 20 barrel-shaped canisters of air from various time periods.
Analysis over the coming months will aim to produce a concentration curve for carbon-14 monoxide and hydroxyl over the decades, similar to the now-famous curves for carbon dioxide and methane. The curves show how gas concentrations have changed in the atmosphere since the industrial era.
Throughout the effort, Neff has also explored more lighthearted combinations of ice and air. During a trip in early 2016 to prepare for this effort, Neff did an unofficial experiment that went viral on social media when he posted it in February 2018. The video captures the sound a piece of ice makes when dropped down the tunnel created by an ice core drill.
Happy hump day. pic.twitter.com/dQtLPWQi7T
— Peter Neff (@peter_neff) February 28, 2018
He shared more photos and videos during this past winter’s expedition to Antarctica, sometimes within hours of returning from a remote camp to an internet-connected research station.
“It’s great to be able to share something about Antarctica, from Antarctica,” Neff said. “It’s a way that we as geoscientists can share with people the work that they help to support.”
The project is led by Petrenko at the University of Rochester and David Etheridge at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in Australia. Other collaborators on the results being presented at the meeting in San Francisco include Scripps Institution of Oceanography, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, the Australian Antarctic Division and Oregon State University. The research was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Australian Antarctic Division.
For more information, contact Neff at firstname.lastname@example.org. He is not attending AGU but is available by email.Read More
Hercules Dome, Antarctica: UW glaciologists begin radar work in anticipation of the next deep-ice drilling project
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
UW glaciology project jointly led by Knut Christianson and Eric Steig to obtain ice from the last time it was warm in Antarctica, 125,000 years ago. Read More
A dirty truth: Humans began accelerating soil erosion 4,000 years ago | Eos
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Recent research combining analysis of carbon dating, sediment accumulation rates and pollen records from 632 lake beds worldwide finds deforestation is tied to increased soil erosion. David Montgomery, a professor of Earth and space sciences at the UW, is quoted. Read More
New kind of alien 'mineral' created on Earth | National Geographic
Friday, December 6, 2019
The discovery is helping researchers understand what might linger on the bizarre surface of Saturn's moon Titan. Baptiste Journaux, research associate in Earth and space sciences at the UW, is quoted. Read More
Six UW faculty members named AAAS fellows including ESS Prof. Eric Steig
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
The American Association for the Advancement of Science has named six faculty members from the University of Washington as AAAS Fellows, including ESS Professor Eric Steig, according to a Nov. 26 announcement. They are part of a cohort of 443 new fellows for 2019, all chosen by their peers for "scientifically or socially distinguished efforts to advance science or its applications."
The six UW faculty members who have been named as fellows are:
Karl Banse, professor emeritus in the School of Oceanography, is honored for his continuing work on the ecology of the plankton, the very small algae and animals that float with the currents. His career has focused on how plankton interact with light, temperature, oxygen, bound nitrogen, iron and other nutrients. At sea, Banse worked in the Baltic, the North Sea and Puget Sound, but especially the Arabian Sea. In other work, using an early color global satellite, he investigated the offshore seasonality of phytoplankton chlorophyll. With former students he also studied bottom-living polychaetous annelid worms and published identification keys for the nearly 500 species of these worms found between Oregon and southeast Alaska, between the shore and about 200 meters depth. Banse joined the UW faculty in 1960. The 90-year-old researcher became emeritus in 1995 and remains scientifically active.
Simon Hay, a professor of health metrics sciences and director of the Local Burden of Disease group at the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, was selected for his research resolving infectious diseases in space and time in order to expose inequalities in health metrics and improve intervention strategies. He currently leads an international collaboration of researchers from a wide variety of academic disciplines to create even better maps of infectious disease. He has published over 400 peer-reviewed articles and other contributions, including two major, in-depth research papers published independently. His published works are cited more than 18,000 times each year, leading to more than 82,000 lifetime citations. With the support of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Hay has embarked on a project to expand this research to a much wider range of diseases to ultimately harmonize this mapping with the Global Burden of Disease Study, IHME’s signature project.
Michael Lagunoff, a professor of microbiology, studies Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus, a virus that alters the cells lining blood and lymphatic vessels. Those changes can cause Kaposi's Sarcoma, a form of cancer that commonly affects AIDS patients worldwide and people in parts of central Africa. Lagunoff's lab has studied how the Kaposi's Sarcoma Herpesvirus interferes with endothelial cell signaling, gene expression and metabolism to promote the formation of tumors containing numerous blood vessels. His lab used RNA-sequencing, metabolomics, proteomics and other techniques to determine global changes in host-cell gene expression and signaling. This information has helped to identify key cellular pathways induced bythe virus. His team is studying how the virus alters the host cell metabolism to mimic cancer cell metabolism, and is searching for novel therapeutic targets for Kaposi's Sarcoma.
Raymond Monnat, Jr., a professor of pathology and genome sciences and an investigator at the Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, studies DNA damage and repair mechanisms, genome instability, and its role in cancer and other conditions. He is noted for his work on Werner, Bloom and Rothman-Thomson syndromes. These inherited disorders cause distinctive physical characteristics, such as premature aging in Werner's, and predispose to cancer. Monnat's team explores how the loss of key proteins important to DNA metabolism may underlie these rare syndromes. Aberrant expression of those proteins may be common in some adult cancers and affect response to chemotherapy. Monnat and his group use certain genome engineering techniques to try to correct disease-causing mutations in patient-derived stem cells. His lab has also identified "safe-harbor sites" in the human genome where new genetic elements might be inserted without disrupting the expression of nearby genes.
Julia Parrish, professor in the School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences and the Department of Biology, is elected for her work in marine ecology. Her research focuses on seabird ecology, marine conservation and public science. A committed advocate of citizen science, she founded and directs the Coastal Observation and Seabird Survey Team, which for two decades has enlisted coastal residents from California to Alaska to monitor West Coast beaches for dead birds and marine debris. Parrish spoke at the White House in 2013 about public engagement in science and scientific literacy. She holds the Lowell A. and Frankie L. Wakefield endowed professorship, and is associate dean for academic affairs in the UW College of the Environment.
Eric Steig, a professor of Earth and space sciences, is honored for his work in glaciology and climate science. Steig uses ice cores and other records to study climate variability over thousands of years. He works on the climate history and dynamics of polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers, and develops new tools to extract the chemical clues in samples of ice and other material. Steig was among the leaders of a project to drill the first deep ice core at South Pole, and was on the team that drilled a 2-mile-deep ice core in West Antarctica. His recent research has focused on the links between large-scale climate conditions and changes in West Antarctica, where glaciers are rapidly retreating. In addition to his research and teaching, he is committed to fostering greater public understanding of climate change, and is a founding contributor to RealClimate.org.
In addition, Harmit Malik, an investigator at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and an affiliate professor of genome sciences at the UW, was selected for his research on genetic conflict.Read More
Drones reveal earthquake hazards hidden in the abyss | Science
Friday, November 15, 2019
Drones can now help scientists track movement of underwater subduction zones. Harold Tobin, professor of Earth and space sciences at the UW, is quoted. Read More
Beneath the ice | Scientific American
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
To predict how much climate change will raise sea level, researchers are studying ice shelves, where vast expanses of ice meet the ocean. Eric Steig, professor of Earth and space sciences at the UW, is quoted. Read More
PNSN records SounderFC Soccer Shakes
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Besides a blog post on the pnsn.com web site several news media picked up our efforts to record the shaking due to SounderFC fans at the MLS Cup finals on Nov. 10, 2019 in Seattle Read More
Experts agree more tools are needed to monitor local volcanoes | Skagit Valley Herald
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Mount Baker, in plain sight as a white-capped dome on days when the sky is clear, and Glacier Peak, a somewhat camouflaged mountain in a sea of jagged ridges, are volcanoes that have and could again reshape the Skagit River valley. Steve Malone, professor emeritus of Earth and space sciences at the UW, is quoted. Read More